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Direct laser deposition of cold-resistant steels for Arctic shelf development

Mendagaliyev, R.V., Zadykyan, G.G., Davletshin, A.O., Mukashev, T., Rashkovets, M.

(2019) Materials Today: Proceedings, 30, pp. 707-711.


КРАТКОЕ ОПИСАНИЕ: In the shipbuilding industry, due to the need to manufacture large-sized and complex products, the use of additive technology by direct laser deposition is promising. The object of the study was choosing of technological processes of direct laser deposition of products made from steel powder 09CrNi2MoCu. To achieve this goal, the complex of theoretical and experimental studies were carried out, including metallographic studies and mechanical tests of the deposition samples. Laboratory samples were manufactured both with local protection and in a protective medium with different residual oxygen contents. Based on the selected process parameters, a product is manufactured by direct laser deposition. During the research and analysis of the results, the regularity of the influence of technological parameters on the deposition products was established. It is established that the influence of the protective environment positively affects the structure and properties of the obtained products. The results of mechanical tests of samples obtained by direct laser deposition have a value higher than rolled products.

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Research of effect of the powder material quality in the structure formation of the DLD inconel 718 samples

Silchonok, S.S., Zadykyan, G.G., Zotov, O.G., Morozova, I.

(2019) Key Engineering Materials, 822, pp. 404-409.


КРАТКОЕ ОПИСАНИЕ: The article presents the results of the study the influence of the chemical composition of powders on the formation of the structure and properties of products from Inconel 718, obtained by DLD. Nowadays, additive technologies are one of the most fast developing methods of obtaining products. The greatest interest is the technology of high-speed direct laser deposition (HSDLD), when a gas powder stream is fed into the laser radiation zone, as a result, a melt pool is formed, and then a layer-after hardening. Thus, it becomes possible to produce three-dimensional products with complex geometry with high productivity. Nickel heat-resistant alloys are widely used in the manufacture for aviation, rocket technology and in other branches of engineering. Gas turbine blades work at elevated temperatures, nozzle blades, combustion chambers, nozzles and engine housings, and other heat-resistant products of aircraft are made from these alloys. At the moment, one of the most promising alloys, based on nickel for the manufacture of parts by DLD process, is the alloy Inconel 718.

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Investigation of crystallization process of a single crystal nickel-based alloy during the laser multilayer cladding

Korsmik, R., Turichin, G., Zadykyan, G., Zhitenev, A.

(2019) Key Engineering Materials, 822, pp. 481-488.


КРАТКОЕ ОПИСАНИЕ: The article shows the results of multilayer laser cladding of heat-resistant single crystal nickel-based alloy ZhS32-VI (CSMX-4 analogue). The influence of the main technological parameters on geometry and microstructure formation of deposited beads was investigated. Based on obtained dependencies, the regression equations are compiled for describing the shape of bead and the ratio of directional and equiaxial crystallized sections. The obtained dependencies of regime parameters nomination allow restoring the gas-turbine blades by the method of laser cladding.

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Laser metal deposition of Ti-6Al-4V alloy with beam oscillation

Turichin, G., Zemlyakov, E., Babkin, K., Ivanov, S., Vildanov, A.

(2018) Procedia CIRP, 74, pp. 184-187.


КРАТКОЕ ОПИСАНИЕ: One of the most prevalent problems of additive technologies is the improvement of process efficiency at the expense of increase in mass deposition rate and reduction of postprocessing time. Deposition rate can be improved by the modification of the shape and size of the molten pool through the optimization of laser beam power distribution. Time and cost of postprocessing depend on the surface roughness requirements and presence of macroscopic waviness. Beam oscillation can help to solve this problem. Laser metal deposition with linear beam oscillation was studied. Effects of numerous process parameters on pool shape and size was analysed by simulation. The heat conduction problem was solved analytically by Green's function method. Temperature fields due to moving normally distributed strip heat sources were studied. It was established that on increasing the oscillation amplitude up to laser beam radius the heat flux of normally distributed strip heat source decrease rapidly to 53%. Greater the beam radius, the less effect of amplitude on the peak value of molten pool width and lower allowable oscillation amplitude. Microscopic examination revealed that beam oscillation promotes obtaining smooth wall surface without any macroscopic waviness.

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Influence of heat input and preheating on the cooling rate, microstructure and mechanical properties at the hybrid laser-arc welding of API 5L X80 steel

Turichin, G., Kuznetsov, M., Pozdnyakov, A., Gook, S., Gumenyuk, A., Rethmeier, M.

(2018) Procedia CIRP, 74, pp. 748-751.


КРАТКОЕ ОПИСАНИЕ: This study investigates the influence of hybrid laser-arc welding parameters: heat input and preheating on the cooling rates, microstructure and mechanical properties of the welding joint. Samples from API 5L X80 steel with root thickness 14 mm were welded using welding wire MF 940 M. Decreasing cooling rate of welds from 588 °C/sec up to 152 °C/sec, weld metal hardness from 343±12 HV up to 276±6 HV and ultimate tensile strength from 1019.5±14 MPa up to 828±10 MPa and increasing bainite phase term of the weld metal was detected at the increasing preheating temperature up to 180 °C and maximal heat input. The mathematical relations of the input and output parameters were created using linear regression equations. Preheating temperature 180 °C allows increasing maximal welding speed up to more than 3.0 m/min with acceptable welding joint quality.

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Analysis of distortion during laser metal deposition of large parts

Turichin, G., Zemlyakov, E., Babkin, K., Ivanov, S., Vildanov, A.

(2018) Procedia CIRP, 74, pp. 154-157.


КРАТКОЕ ОПИСАНИЕ: Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) of large parts is very challenging technology for aerospace industry. Due to high productivity of several kilograms per hour and nearly unlimited part size, this technology becomes competitive to traditional production technologies of casting, welding and rolling. One of the main problem of large parts manufacturing is the high distortion. Estimation of residual stresses and distortion is necessary to obtain required dimensional accuracy and prevent fracture of additively manufactured parts. Effects of layer-by-layer evolution of stresses and strains was studied by finite-element simulation. It was shown that distortion of axially symmetrical parts can be successfully predicted by the developed simulation procedure. It was established that the effect of increasing cylinder radius is to increase residual radial displacement and curvature of the sidewall. The highest tension hoop and axial stress amounted to 1.15-1.2 times of yield stress near the substrate. If deposited material have a weak ductility (e.g. titanium alloys) there is a high probability that the fracture could occurs in the sidewall near the substrate. Several experimental trials was carried out for validation of accuracy of developed simulation procedure. Shape of build parts was analysed by 3D laser scanner.

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Features of structure formation in α+β titanium alloys

Turichin, G.A., Klimova-Korsmik, O.G., Gushchina, M.O., Shalnova, S.A., Korsmik, R.S., Cheverikin, V.V., Tataru, A.S.

(2018) Procedia CIRP, 74, pp. 188-191.


КРАТКОЕ ОПИСАНИЕ: In recent years, additive manufacturing have become widespread in all industries. Additive manufacturing also include direct laser deposition (DLD technology). Production of details by the DLD process is especially perspective for aircraft turbine construction and shipbuilding details manufacturing because they are large-size and made from expensive alloys. Such alloys also include titanium ones. The quality of the parts obtained during DLD process depends on various factors. For titanium alloys of the α + β group formation of metastable phases during uncontrolled intense cooling is possible. It could affect the mechanical characteristics. In addition, the shape and size of the structural components affect the mechanics of products. The article presents the research results aimed at establishing the influence of the basic technological parameters on the capacity, structure and mechanical properties. In addition, for titanium alloys produced by DLD, the actual problem is to increase productivity with save high mechanical characteristics.

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Laser-Arc hybrid welding perspective ultra-high strength steels: Influence of the chemical composition of weld metal on microstructure and mechanical properties

Turichin, G., Kuznetsov, M., Klimova-Korsmik, O., Sklyar, M., Zhitenev, A., Kurakin, A., Pozdnyakov, A.

(2018) Procedia CIRP, 74, pp. 752-756.


КРАТКОЕ ОПИСАНИЕ: The publication is devoted to the researches of laser-arc hybrid welding ultra-high strength steels Hardox Extreme, Weldox 1100E, Armox 600T. The influence of chemical composition of the weld metal on microstructure and mechanical properties of a welding joint has been researched. The influence of welding mode parameters on welded joint geometry and thermal cycle has been simulated with LaserCAD simulation software. Laser-arc hybrid welding is carried out with filler wire of different chemical composition. High quality welded joints with good formation and tensile strength up to 1780 MPa has been received. Martensite phase, carbides, upper bainite and bainite with granular morphology have been detected in the weld metal.

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Laser cladding technological machine. Investigation of efficiency of various nozzles design

Korsmik, R.S., Turichin, G.A., Babkin, K.D.

(2017) Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 857 (1), статья № 012021.


КРАТКОЕ ОПИСАНИЕ: The paper shows the correlation between nozzle design and efficiency of laser cladding process. The nozzles developed by authors are characterized by uniform distribution of the powder in the jet transection. The stable formation of the cladding beads is achieved when the gas-powder jet focused below the processing surface.

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Hybrid welding of dissimilar metals

Samigullin, A.D., Bashmakov, D.A., Israphilov, I.K., Turichin, G.A.

(2017) Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 789 (1), статья № 012048.


КРАТКОЕ ОПИСАНИЕ: The article addresses issues laser - plasma welding (LPW) dissimilar metals and the results of metallographic studies of the microstructure of welds ferrite - 40 steel and molybdenum - steel 40. Increasing potential opportunities the high-energy processing is carried out by integration the laser radiation (LR) and plasma, which allows you to create the desired spatial distribution of the energy flow for technological processes (TP) of laser-plasma heat treatment (LPT) of metals. The distribution of the thermal field is determined by the density distribution of energy flow LR and plasma exposure time, and the thermal characteristics of the treated metal. The most interesting is the treatment of details with ring flow of plasma and LR axial impact.

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Hybrid Laser-Arc Welding of the High-Strength Shipbuilding Steels: Equipment and Technology

Turichin, G., Kuznetsov, M., Tsibulskiy, I., Firsova, A.

(2017) Physics Procedia, 89, pp. 156-163. 


КРАТКОЕ ОПИСАНИЕ: Hybrid laser-Arc welding (HLAW) allows getting weld joints with thickness up to 35 mm for one pass, provide good quality formation of joints, minimal thermal deformations, the productivity in 10 times more in comparison with arc welding. In addition, replacement arc welding to the HLAW allows economizing filler materials, shielding gas and consumable electricity more than 4 times. Therefore, HLAW is actually technology for basic engineering branches and especially for shipbuilding. The Institute of Laser and Welding Technologies (ILWT) developed laser and hybrid laser-Arc welding technologies for different type of steels and alloys including high-strength shipbuilding steels. Also ILWT produced portal and robotic systems for HLAW process realization. Portal system for hybrid laser-Arc welding of panels with dimensions 6x6 m using at the manufacturing of flat curvilinear sections in the shipbuilding is depicted in the article. Results of experimental researches of the hybrid laser-Arc welding parameters influence on the formation and mechanical properties of weld joint are described at the publication also. Experimental part was made with using of the portal system.


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Beam Technologies and Laser Application17–19 September 2018, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation

Уважаемые коллеги! Сборник трудов конференции опубликован в on-line журнале Journal of Physics Conference series
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Исследование формирования структуры в высокопрочных сплавах на основе никеля, полученных при высокоскоростном прямом лазерном выращивании

Жаропрочные сплавы на основе никеля зарекомендовали себя, как материалы, обладающие высоким сопротивлением пластической деформации и разрушению при высоких температурах и в окислительных средах. Данная группа сплавов используется для изготовления различных изделий - рабочие и сопловые лопатки, диски ротора турбины, детали камеры сгорания и т. п.
Как правило, жаропрочные сплавы на основе никеля, обладают сложным химическим составом, включающих в себя более 10 компонентов, тщательно сбалансированных для получения необходимых характеристик изделий. Сложный состав легирующих элементов обуславливает высокую стоимость готовых изделий, как классические методы их изготовления, включающие в себя литье и последующую термическую и механическую обработку. Читать далее...
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Technology of High-speed Direct Laser Deposition from Ni-based Superalloys

O.G. Klimova-Korsmik, G.A. Turichin, E.V. Zemlyakov, K.D. Babkin, P.V Petrovsky, A.Y. Travyanov

Recently, additive manufacturing is the one of most perspective technologies; it can replace conventional methods of casting and subsequent time-consuming machining. One of the most interesting additive technologies - high-speed direct laser deposition (HSDLD) allows realizing heterophase process during the manufacturing, which there is process takes place with a partial melting of powder. This is particulary important for materials, which are sensitive to strong fluctuations of temperature treatment regimes, like nickel base alloys with high content of gamma prime phase. More...
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High-Speed Direct Laser Deposition Technology, Equipment and Materials

G.A. Turichin, V.V. Somonov, K.D. Babkin, E.V. Zemlyakov, O.G. Klimova

The article presents the principles of direct metal deposition process, types of tehnological equipment and materials for implementation. The sample of depositited products have been demonstrated. More...
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Hydrodynamic instability in high-speed direct laser deposition for additive manufacturing

G.A. Turichin, E.V. Zemlyakov, O.G. Klimova, K.D. Babkin

High speed direct laser deposition, when product forms from metal powder, transfered by gas-powder jet, supplied coaxially or non-coaxially to focused laser beam, in one of most prospective additive technologies for production parts for aircraft engines. The limit of process productivity is connected with development of hydrodynamic instability of the melt pool in conditions of high power laser action and material supply by gas-powder jet. Theoretical analysis and experiments allowed clarifed a physycal nature of instability apperance, determine a stability conditions and invent a methods which allow avoid instability in deposition process. More...
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Prediction of solidification behaviour and microstructure of Ni based alloys obtained by casting and direct additive laser growth

A. Y. Travyanov, P. V. Petrovskiy, G. A. Turichin, E. V. Zemlyakov, M. Kovac, S. Vondracek, A. Kondratiev, A. V. Khvan, V. V. Cheverikin, D. O. Ivanov, I. A. Bazhenova and A. T. Dinsdale

Numerical tools are now used widely in the prediction of material properties necessary in order to gain a better understanding of the relationship between material properties and performance, to improve the reliability of processes and the quality of the final product, and to reduce costs, waste and energy use. In this paper, the solidification properties and the microstructure of some commercial Ni based alloys were analysed and predicted numerically using the ProCAST software. The microstructure of a sample obtained by the direct additive laser growth, a new additive manufacturing technique based on the selective laser melting, is presented and discussed. Numerical approaches and software packages that can be used to model additive manufacturing processes are discussed and critically analysed. More...
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High-Speed Direct Laser Deposition: Technology, Equipment and Materials

G. A. Turichin, E. V. Zemlyakov, O. G. Klimova-Korsmik, V. V. Somonov

The results investigate hybrid laser-arc welding of high strength steels using design responsible metallic construction and the highest strength body of vehicles. Welds from modern high strength steels grade Hardox 400, Hardox 450, Armox 600T and АB were created. High power fiber laser LS-15 with output 15 kW and arc rectifier VDU - 1500 DC were used in the experiment. Results of the metallographic research and mechanical tests are
presented. More...
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Feeding Devices Design for Selective Laser Melting Formation of Heterogeneous Powder Structures

O. I. Grinin, E. A. Valdaytseva, I. T. Lasota, Ya. B. Pevzner, V. V. Somonov

The Additive Manufacturing (AM) industry has undergone tremendous growth in recent years. Although it seems to be a relatively new technology, it has been present over the last twenty years, but it is in the late decade when a big development has taken place. One of the type of additive manufacturing is selective laser melting technology (SLM).
The major AM trends are improvement of quality and shape complexity of manufactured products. SLM technologies allows to produce products of the functionally graded materials (FGM), characterized by a continuous change from one layer to another following characteristics: chemical composition, morphology and crystalline structure. More...
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Structure Formation in Ni Superalloys During High-Speed Direct Laser Deposition

O. G. Klimova-Korsmik, G. A. Turichin, E. V. Zemlyakov, K. D. Babkin, P. V. Petrovsky, A. I. Travyanov

Additive technologies are replacing the conventional methods of casting and subsequent time-consuming machining because of its high productivity. Resent engineering development in the field of additive manufacturing allows increasing assortment of useful powder materials. Technology of high-speed direct laser deposition (HSDLD) is a one of most perspective new technologies. It allows realizing heterophase process during the manufacturing, which there is process of partial melting of used powder is realized. The product is formed from a metal powder, which is supplied by compressed gas-powder jet directly into the laser action zone, wherein the jet can be as coaxial and as non-coaxial. More...